Shaligram Laminates
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Technical Details

The materials referred to are high pressure decorative laminates (HPL) according to IS : 2046-1995. HPL are sheets consisting of layers of cellulose fibrous material (normally Absorbent Craft Paper) impregnated with thermosetting resins made in-house and bonded together in a high pressure process. The process, defined as a simultaneous application of heat (≥ 145 °C) and high specific pressure(≥ 210 kg/cm2), provides flowing and subsequent curing of the thermosetting resins to obtain a homogenous non-porous material with the required surface finish. Basically more than 60% to 70% of the HPL consist of paper and the remaining 40% to 30 % consist of cured phenol-formaldehyde resin for core layers and melamine-formaldehyde resin for the surface layer. Both resins belonging to the group of thermosetting resins are irreversibly interacted through cross linked chemical bonds formed during the curing process producing a nonreactive, stable material with characteristics which are totally different from those of its component parts. HPL are supplied in sheet form in a variety of sizes, thicknesses and surface finishes. Where improved fire retardance is required, the laminate core may be treated with an additive which does not contain halogens

Technical Details

Storage and Transportation

Storage and transportation should be carried out in accordance with the General Processing Recommendations for HPL; no special precautions need to be taken. For transportation, HPL is classified as a non-hazardous product; no labelling is required.

Handling and Machining of HPL

The usual safety requirements of fabrication and machining should be observed with regard to dust extraction, dust collection, and fire precautions. Because of the possibility of sharp edges protective gloves should always be worn when handling laminates. The contact with dust from HPL does not present any special problems, however a small percentage of personnel may be sensitive or even allergic to machining dust in general.

Environmental and Health Aspects in Use

Decorative laminates are cured and therefore chemically inert. HPL formaldehyde emission level is far below the limit for wood based materials. Due to their very low permeability HPL bonded to wood based substrates act as a barrier against possible formaldehyde emissions coming from the substrates. There is no migration affecting food and, consequently, HPL are approved for contact with foodstuffs. The decorative surfaces are resistant to common household solvents and chemicals and have therefore been used for many years in applications where cleanliness and hygiene are important. The non-porous HPL surface and edges are easy to disinfect with hot water, steam and common types of disinfectants used in hospitals and other commercial facilities. HPL is an article made using Chemical as raw material and not a chemical substance.


As HPL do not suffer from corrosion and oxidation, they do not need any further surface protection (lacquers or paints).

HPL in Fire Situations

Laminates are difficult to ignite, do not melt nor drip and have properties that retard "spread of flame", thus prolonging evacuating time. Due to incomplete burning, as with many organic materials, hazardous substances are to be found in the smoke. However, HPL are capable of meeting the best performance for organic surfacing materials. In dealing with fires involving laminates the same fire fighting techniques should be employed as with other wood based building materials.

Physical / chemical characteristics
Physical state Solid sheets
Density ≥1,35 g/cm3
Solubility Insoluble in water, oil, methanol, diethyl ether, n-octanol, acetone
Boiling point None
Evaporation rate None
Melting point HPL do not melt
Calorific value 18 - 20 MJ/kg
Heavy Metals HPL do not contain toxic compounds of antimony, heavy metals, barium, cadmium, chromiumIII, chromiumVI, lead, mercury, selenium
Stability and reactivity data
Stability HPL are stable; they are not considered to be reactive or corrosive.
Hazardous reactions None
Material incompatibility Strong acids or alkaline solutions will stain the surface
Electrostatic behaviour

It minimizes the generation of charge by contact-separation or rubbing with another material. It does not need to be earthed. Surface resistivity is between 109 – 1012 ohms and a chargeability of V < 2 kV according to CEI IEC 61340-4-1 so that HPL are considered as antistatic material.

Storage and transport HPL are classified as non-hazardous for transportation purposes and there are no specific requirements
Machining Use gloves to protect from sharp edges and safety glasses to prevent eye injuries. No special working equipment is necessary, except protections to minimize dust exposure in case of sheet machining
Disposal considerations Waste material should be handled according to local regulations. Burning is permitted in approved industrial incinerators
Health information HPL are not considered to be dangerous for humans and animals. There is no evidence of HPL-induced toxicological effects and eco-toxicity. HPL surfaces are physiologically safe and approved for use in contact with foodstuff


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